Computer Threats and Security

           In today’s highly connected world, computer security is more important than ever. Our computers and devices contain sensitive personal and financial data that criminals are eager to access. Even large organizations face security threats that could bring down entire systems and networks. Understanding the different types of computer threats and how to guard against them is crucial for anyone who uses a digital device.

What Are Computer Threats?

             Computer threats refer to any potential danger that attempts to damage, steal, or gain unauthorized access to your data, devices, or network resources. These threats come from many sources, including:

  • Malware – Malicious software designed to infiltrate systems and damage devices or data. This includes viruses, worms, spyware, ransomware, and more.
  • Hacking – The act of illegally gaining access to a computer system or network to steal data or cause disruption.
  • Phishing – Deceptive emails or sites that seek to trick users into revealing passwords or sensitive information.
  • Insider Threats – Dangers that come from trusted employees, contractors, or business partners who misuse system access.
  • Physical Theft/Damage – Stealing or tampering with devices to access offline data and credentials.

            These threats are constantly evolving, and new varieties are always emerging. That’s why continuous vigilance and updated security measures are essential.

Why Is Computer Security Important?

Robust computer security defenses provide several vital protections:

  • Safeguard Sensitive Information – Personal, financial, medical, and other private data is now routinely stored digitally. Strong security helps prevent devastating identity theft and fraud.
  • Maintain Productivity – Malware and other threats can crash systems, corrupt files, or slow PC performance to a crawl. Security preserves business continuity and workforce productivity.
  • Protect Customer Trust – Customers expect companies to securely handle their sensitive information. Failing to meet that expectation causes loss of credibility, sales, and loyalty.
  • Avoid Regulatory Penalties – Industries like healthcare and finance face strict governance of their cybersecurity practices. Non-compliance results in heavy fines for data breaches.

         In short, computer security allows us to fully utilize revolutionary digital technology without undue exposure to crooks and criminals. Now let’s examine popular varieties of threats.

Types of Threats

            Cyber threats come in many shapes and sizes, but they can be broadly categorized based on the kinds of systems and data they target.

Types of threats

Software-Based Threats

            These intrusions are delivered through malicious software, or malware, that cybercriminals develop and deploy specifically to compromise computer systems.


             Scareware tricks unsuspecting users into believing malware has already infected their system. Frightening warning messages coerce victims into purchasing fake anti-virus software that actually installs malware instead of detecting it.


             This self-replicating malware spreads by injecting its code into clean files, programs, or documents. So when a user accesses an infected item, the virus springs to life and either causes direct damage or unleashes additional malware.


              Stealthy malware that hides within a system’s software and masking its presence. By controlling the operating system, rootkits can infiltrate deeply while avoiding detection, allowing long-term data harvesting or system sabotage.


             Unlike other malware, Trojans masquerade as legitimate programs to trick users into installing them. Named after the Trojan Horse legend, they often arrive hidden within attachments or downloads. Once activated, Trojans unleash viruses, enable cybercriminal access, or destroy data.


           Worms replicate and spread rapidly across networks by exploiting vulnerabilities in programs or operating systems. They often send copies to all contacts in your email and messaging apps, allowing them to spread exponentially.


              Secretly records every keystroke made on an infiltrated system, capturing sensitive data like passwords and financial credentials that are later sent to cybercriminals.


               Bombards internet browsing sessions with intrusive popup ads in order to generate fraudulent ad revenue through clicks. Compromised browsers can crash constantly, and installed adware slows system performance.

Web & Email Threats

          Other threats use deception over the internet to trick victims into enabling access or sharing sensitive data.


            The criminal practice of sending fraudulent emails or setting up fake websites impersonating trusted entities. Phishing messages and sites are carefully designed to fool recipients into clicking links, opening attachments to launch malware, or directly divulging personal information.

Spear Phishing

A more targeted form of phishing focused on specific individuals, groups, or organizations. Spear phishing content references details like names, projects, events etc. to seem more legitimate and increase likelihood of response.


Highly customized spear phishing attacks directed specifically at senior executives or other VIPs within vulnerable organizations. By researching key details on these prominent targets, whaling content convinces victims to wire funds, share passwords, or supply other concessions.

Human Threats

Beyond external cybercriminals, organizations also face internal human threats from employees or other insiders who abuse their authorized access.

Insider Threats

Anyone with legitimate access that improperly discloses or destroys sensitive data. Most common motives include financial gain, revenge, or an intention to harm the organization.

Social Engineering

Manipulating organizational staff into disclosing passwords or other access steps by exploiting human tendencies to trust authority, fear getting in trouble, or comply with policies.

How to Make Your System Secure

Fortunately, with vigilance and proper precautions, individuals and organizations can protect themselves against the rising tide of cyber threats. Here are smart steps everyone should take:

Keep Software Updated

Hackers relentlessly search for vulnerabilities in common programs and platforms that let them slide malware into systems. Developers issue frequent software patches to address discovered security gaps. By promptly installing these updates, you’ll stay one step ahead of the intruders.

Install Antivirus & Other Security Software

Essential protection against viruses, malware, ransomware, and other attacks. But with new threats emerging daily, it’s crucial to keep these defenses fully updated. Advanced solutions also filter email attachments, scans download files, blocks malicious websites, and watch for unauthorized access attempts.

Backup Critical Data

Even with robust defenses, some threats may succeed. Regularly backing up important files, databases, and system image saves you from catastrophic data losses. Storing backups offline prevents malware or encryption attacks from touching your failsafe copies.

Beware Email Attachments & Websites

Treat email attachments, popups, web ads/offers, and unfamiliar websites with extreme caution. Phishing schemes work by infecting systems through these vectors when users click, install, or enter information. Slow down and use good judgment whenever encountering links, files, or forms.

Create Strong, Unique Passwords

Weak or recycled passwords put online accounts and entire networks at risk if compromised. Use random, lengthy password generators to create distinct high-entropy passphrases for every account and device. Store them in a reputable password manager rather than on paper or unencrypted files.

Limit User Rights

Don’t provide more system access privileges than necessary for a specific role. Restrict admin rights only to trusted IT staff and key personnel. Segment internal networks and databases so teams can only access data relevant to their direct duties.

Control Physical Access

Don’t let unauthorized staff or guests plug random flash drives into devices or tamper with systems. Secure laptops, servers, mobile devices so they can’t easily be stolen. Require badges for facility entry and keep sensitive infrastructure locked up tight.


Our expanding digital footprint and deep reliance on technology creates an unprecedented opportunity for cybercriminals of all motivations and capabilities. However, by understanding modern, making security a top priority, and taking the right precautions, we can utilize revolutionary connectivity and computing power without undue risk. Through vigilance, common sense, and a layered defense spanning software, hardware, policies, and people, individuals and organization can keep their data, devices, and resources safe.

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Computer Threats and Security

  • What are the threats in computer security?
    Some major threats in computer security include malware like viruses, worms, and Trojans; hacking and system intrusions; insider misuse of data or access; email phishing scams seeking to steal credentials and information; and inadequate software vulnerability management.
  • What is a computer threat called?
    Some common terms used to describe different computer threats include:
    • Malware - All types of malicious software like viruses, spyware, ransomware etc.
    • Social Engineering - Manipulation of users into revealing passwords or access
    • Phishing - Deceptive emails and sites seeking login/financial data
    • Hacker - Someone who breaches systems to steal data or cause damage
    • Insider Threat - Trusted insiders who misuse access to harm a system or organization
  • What are 3 types of threats?
    Three major types of cybersecurity threats include:
    1. Malware: Malicious software like viruses and Trojans that damage systems.
    2. Phishing: Deceptive communications that trick users in order to steal account credentials or enable cybercriminal access.
    3. Network Intrusions: Advanced hacking of systems, applications, and databases by cybercriminals seeking data or disruption.
  • What are the four major threats to a computer?
    The four most common threats to computers and internet security are:
    1. Viruses that corrupt files and software.
    2. Phishing scams aimed at stealing financial or login credentials.
    3. Network intrusions via hacking tools and brute force attacks.
    4. Insider misuse of authorized system access rights to harm an organization.


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